New Varieties and Hybrids released
A total of 34 varieties including 4 hybrids and 30 varieties were released for different ecologies during 2018-19 (Table). Four hybrids and 10 varieties were released by Central Varietal Release Committee whereas twenty varieties were released by State Varietal Release Committee. State-wise, 11 varieties for Tripura, 5 for Odisha, 2 for Karnataka and one each for UP and Tamil Nadu were released by SVRC.
- AICRIP Plant Breeding conducted 45 varietal trials and 5 hybrid rice trials in 939 experiments (792 varietal and 147 hybrid rice) at 122 locations (45 funded and 77 voluntary centres) in 27 states and 2 union Territories across seven zones of the country during 2018.
- A total of nine hundred and two varieties are tested in forty five varietal trials of which two hundred and nineteen varieties were found promising across the zones and states in diverse ecologies.
- A set of 77 hybrids were evaluated in four hybrid rice trials viz., IHRT-E, IHRT-ME, IHRT-M and IHRT-MS. Twelve hybrids were found to be promising.
- The Variety Identification Committee identified 11 varieties and 9 hybrids for release in different states.
- Breeder seed production of 262 rice varieties and parental lines of six hybrids as per DAC indent was conducted at 42 centers across the country. Overall 7204 quintals breeder seed was produced against the allocated target of 4323 quintals. Breeder seed production of 21 varieties was taken up at ICAR-IIRR centre with a total production of 163 quintals against the target of 173 quintals.
- In Agronomy Program, a total of 210 experiments were conducted at 44 locations on various aspects of rice agronomy to generate technologies which can reduce the cost of cultivation and enhance the productivity.
- Under nutrient management trials in different ecologies 15 entries performed well and were identified as promising.
- Mechanical transplanting method resulted in the highest grain yield (5.63 t/ha) followed by manual transplanting (5.21 t/ha) and SRI (5.06 t/ha). 150% RDF in kharif season followed by 100% RDF in rabi season was found to be the optimum.
- Cost of cultivation under flooding was higher across all the locations from Rs. 33,443 to Rs. 45,850/- and there was a saving of Rs. 3,800/- per ha at Mandya under alternate wetting and drying over flooding. Similarly, water input was reduced.
- An increase of 11% grain yield due to iron coating of seeds in direct seeded rice situation was reported across the test locations over uncoated seed.
- Under late planting condition, application of higher dose of fertilizer (125% of RDF) and closer spacing gave significantly higher grain yield of rice.
- The systemic post emergence herbicide Thiobencarb @ 5 l/ha and Rinskor (31.25-37.5 g/ha) at 4-7 leaf stage were found promising with higher weed control efficiency.
- Pre kharif pulse crop increased grain yield by 9.5% over rice-rice system across the locations.
- AICRIP on soil science conducted 7 trails during rabi 2017-18 and kharif 2018 in 17 locations representing typical soil and crop systems and important soil rice growing regions.
- In the 30th year of study on long term soil fertility management in RBCS, RDF+FYM recorded maximum yield at all three locations and FYM alone treatment was on par to RDF in kharif at MND and TTB.
- In the trail on soil quality and productivity assessment in farmer’s fields at six locations, soil quality index varied across the farmers’ fields in all locations and did not match with crop productivity in most sites. Yield gap was maximum (51%) at Chinsurah and minimum at Maruteru (16%). Based on the nutrient requirement of a particular site, fertiliser prescriptions were recommended and they will be validated in the following kharif season.
- Gypsum application in sodic soils and liming in acid soils in conjunction with NPK improved rice yields. IIRR varieties; DRR Dhan 42, 43, 45 and 46 in sodic soils and US 312, Bina Dhan 8, Bina Dhan 75 and Maheswari in acid soils were found promising.
- Nutrient expert recorded highest grain yields in about 70% of the farmers’ sites tested with a higher dose of N and K and lower dose of P there by saving the costly P fertilisers.
- Silicon application had resulted in 9% increase in mean grain yield. The Maximum increase was observed in US-313 and KRH- 4. Application silicon to water stressed crop reduced the negative impact of water stress.
- Out of 30 rice genotypes tested only Govind, IET27514 IET27522 and IET27515 show relative tolerance based on drought index values.
- High temperature reduced the mean grain yield by 25%. Based on% reduction in yield under elevated temperature condition IET 27680 and IET 25713 show relative tolerance to high temperature. Based on yield stability index and ASV IET 26468 followed by IET 27477 and IER 24911 can be identified as relatively heat tolerant.
- Out of 21 entries screened for multiple abiotic stress tolerance none of the entries show tolerance to all the stresses. However, IET 26487, IET 26493 and BPT 2782 show tolerance to at least two abiotic stresses.
- The trial was conducted with three nitrogen treatments. Based on yield and stability values Varadhan x BPT5204/10 and Sampada x Jaya/3 and Sampada x Jaya/3, Sampada X Jaya/2 and Varadhan x BPT5204/10 can be identified as stable genotypes under 0 Kg N and 50 kg N ha-1
- Out of 15 AVT entries tested at 7 locations only IET 27559 showed relative tolerance to low-light stress. All other entries suffered yield loss by >45%.
- Seven major trials encompassing various studies with 393 experiments (87.3%) were conducted at 41 locations (32 funded + 9 voluntary) in 22 states and one Union territory.
- A set of 1661 entries including 1425 pre- breeding lines, 94 hybrids, one cultivar and 28 germplasm accessions and 113 check varieties were evaluated against 12 insect pests in 213 tests (46 greenhouse reactions+167 field reactions). 104 entries (6.62%) were promising against various insect pests of which 15 entries were under retesting.
- 16 breeding lines viz., BPT 2601, CB 15569, CB 15144, MTU 1303, MTU 1305, MTU 1306, MTU 1307, MTU 1308, MTU 1309, WGL, WGL 1319, WGL 1320, RNR 19416, RP 5995 Bphk17-5, IR 73382-80-9-3-13-2-2-1-3-B (HWR-16) and RP 5690-20-6-3-2-1, four germplasm accessions viz., IC 216735, IC 76013, IC 75975 and IC 76057 and two checks PTB 33, RP 2068-18-3-5 and MO1 were promising against brown planthopper.
- SKL 07-11-117-50-65-60-267, WGL 1164, Aganni and W1263 were promising against gall midge. HWR 24, MSM 139, NEG 186, HPR 2613 and HWR 3 were promising against leaf folder. Sixteen entries viz., JGL 32467, JGL 32485, BK 39-179, JGL 33080, JGL 33124, JGL 34508, RP 5587-B-B-B-209, RP 5587-B-B-B-253-2, BK 35-155, GL 34505, KAUPTB 0627-2-11, KAUPTB 0627-2-14, RP 5587-B-B-B-258-1, RP 5587-B-B-B-262, RP 5588-B-B-B-B-232 and JGL 28547 were promising against stem borer. BPT 2231, BPT 2611, IET 27275, IET 27284, IET 27480, IET 27379 and IET 27392 were promising against 2-3 insect pests.
- PTB 33 with bph2+Bph3+unknown factors and RP 2068-18-3-5 with Bph33(t) gene were promising at all 10 locations while Rathu Heenati with Bph3+Bph17 genes and T 12 with bph7 gene performed better in 5 locations. Aganni (Gm8), INRC 3021(Gm8) and W1263 (Gm1) were promising against gall midge in 5-8 tests.
- There was no adverse impact on the performance of the two newer insecticides (spinetoram + methoxyfenozide) when applied alone or in combination with fungicides (hexaconazole and tricyclazole) confirming the compatibility of the chemicals when used as tank mix in the field.
- The essential oils like eucalyptus oil was found effective against stem borer; cedar wood oil was effective against gall midge, all the essential oils were moderately effective against planthoppers, effective against leaf folder and safer to natural enemies.
- Late planting of rice resulted in high incidence of stem borer, gall midge, leaf folder, caseworm, brown planthopper and white backed planthopper except whorl maggot as compared to early and normal planting.
- Non-pesticidal methods such as increasing floral diversity, water management, organic manures, alleyways as part of ecological engineering resulted in reduced planthopper populations and increased natural enemy populations.
- In the bio intensive pest management plots, pest incidence was reduced and natural enemies were higher as compared to farmer’s practice.
- A significant negative relationship was observed between i) leaf folder damaged leaves and grain yield and ii) hispa damaged leaves and grain yield.
- Integrated pest management practices resulted in lower insect pest incidence, disease incidence, weeds, higher grain yields and high benefit cost ratio compared to farmer’s practice.
- Population monitoring of insect pest populations through light trap collections revealed yellow stem borer and brown planthopper to be the major insect pests along with leaf folder and GLH in low numbers.
- AICRIP programme on Plant Pathology during kharif 2018 involving 14 trials including host plant resistance, virulence of plant pathogens, disease observation and disease management trials were conducted at different AICRIP locations.
- In various screening nurseries, 1418 entries were evaluated and the following promising cultures showed resistant reaction for more than two diseases: IET # 28014, 28015, 26027,27077, 27094, 27280, 28020, 25618, 27579, 7668, 27781, 27747, 27806, 25826, 2657, 26594, 27461, 27466, 27467, 27378, 27333, 27377, 27389, CB14161, NWGR-11048 and RNR-11450.
- Virulence pattern of Pyricularia grisea and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae: Reaction pattern of 24 isolates of Pyricularia grisea on 25 differentials were grouped into 8 clusters. The reaction pattern revealed a shift in pathogen profile structure at many locations. Two Bacterial blight resistance genes xa13 and Xa21 showed susceptibility at 11 hot spot locations. The isolate from Maruteru showed exceptional virulence and all the differentials showed susceptible reaction to this isolate.
- Across the locations, delayed sowing/ planting increased the disease development of leaf blast, brown spot and sheath rot. Normal sown crop recorded high disease severity of bacterial leaf blight and disease progress of sheath blight, was high in the early and normal sown crop. Neck blast was severe in the normal sown crop.
- The combination product is trifloxystrobin 25% + tebuconazole 50% WG (0.4g/l) found effective against leaf blast, neck blast and sheath rot. Azoxystrobin 18.2% w/w + difenoconazole 11.4% w/w SC (1.0 ml/l) found effective against sheath blight and sheath rot. Mancozeb 50% + carbendazim 25% WS (30.5%) and Flusilazole 12.5% + carbendazim 25% SC found effective in managing brown spot of rice.
- Incorporation of FYM, seed treatment, application of DAP, MOP in the nursery area followed by the application of FYM + Trichoderma during land preparation, cultural practices, application of 75% RDF + micronutrient solution, one blanket application of cartap hydrochloride at 15 DAT and propiconazole at booting stage in main field found to be most effective and consistent in reducing the incidence of leaf blast, neck blast, sheath blight, brown spot and sheath rot and also increasing the grain yield.
- Among the seven different essential oils tested two sprays of Clove oil @ 2 ml/l found better against leaf blast, whereas Neem oil @ 2 ml/l and Cedar wood oil @ 2 ml/l effective for reducing leaf and neck blast disease severity.
- Production Oriented Survey was conducted in 15 States of 17 AICRIP centres. During 2018 three cyclones viz., ‘Daye’in south Odisha, adjoining Andhra Pradesh; ‘Titli’ in near Palasa, Andhra Pradesh and ‘Gaja’ in Tamil Nadu made severe impact.
- Many farmers from different states also expressed the need for timely availability of seeds of different hybrids, different inputs, farm mechanization (on hire basis/custom hiring), market facility and farm loan.
- Severe outbreak of bacterial bight reported from Nizamabad and Suryapet districts of Telangana. Similarly false smut (in parts of Uttarakhand, Mandi in Himachal Pradesh and Siddharthnagar in UP), sheath blight (in Haryana, Punjab, Karnataka and Chhattisgarh), Neck blast (in Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka and Chhattisgarh) caused severe damage.
- BPH/WBPH was very widespread in moderate to severe form in most of the districts of Haryana and many parts of Vidharbha region of Maharashtra and Telangana. There was severe attack of rice hispa in Nizamabad district of Telangana
Transfer of Technology
- During the year 2018-19, 870 FLDs were conducted through which a cafeteria of rice technologies were demonstrated covering 18 states and five major rice ecosystems of the country.